Showing posts with label Biography Of Albert Einstein. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Biography Of Albert Einstein. Show all posts

Friday, 12 April 2013

Biography Of Famous Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein was born at Ulm, in Württemberg, Germany, on March 14, 1879. he is a son of Hermann and Pauline Einstein. His father was a featherbed salesman. After 6 weeks the family moved to Munich where he later on began his education at the Luitpold Gymnasium. He was born in a middle-class Jewish family. Later, they moved to Italy and Albert carry on his education at Aarau, In 1896 (switzerland) he entered the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich for training as a teacher in physics and mathematics, where he met his first wife. In the year of 1901,  he got his diploma and also attained Swiss citizenship. Then later he joined a post as technical assistant in the Swiss Patent Office. In the year of 1905 he got his doctor's(MBBS) degree.

In his spare time,at the Patent Office during his stay, he produced much of his remarkable work in 1908 he was appointed Privatdozent in Berne. In 1909 he became Extraordinary Professor  at Zurich, in the year of 1911 Professor of Theoretical Physics at Prague, returning to Zurich in the following year to fill a similar post.

In 1914 he was appointed Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Physical Institute and Professor in the University of Berlin. He became a German citizen in 1914 and stay in Berlin until 1933 when he abandoned his citizenship for political grounds and moved to America to take the position of Professor of Theoretical Physics at Princeton*. He became a citizen of United States in 1940 and retired in 1945, from his post.

After World War II, Einstein was a leading figure in the World Government Movement, he was offered the Presidency of the State of Israel, which he rejected, and he worked together with Dr. Chaim Weizmann in organising the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Einstein always look like to have a clear view of the problems of physics and the persevrence to solve them. He had a  scenario of his own and was able to anticipate the main stages on the way to his goal. He regarded his major attainments as mere stepping-stones for the next progress.

At the start of his scientific work, Einstein  actualized the imperfection of Newtonian mechanics and his special theory of relativity arose from an attempt to adjust the laws of mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. He treated with classical problems of statistical mechanics and problems in which they were intermixed with quantum theory: this led to an description of the Brownian movement of molecules. He examined the thermal properties of light with a low radiation density and his scrutiny systematized the foundation of the photon theory of light.

One of his achievements, E=mc2 is Einstein's most famous equation, and it establishes a correlation between mass and energy (c is the speed of light) for the first time -- later practically exemplified in the splitting of the atom and the inauguration of the exploration of atomic (nuclear) energy.

In his early days in Berlin, Einstein supposed that the correct perception of the special theory of relativity must also fix up a theory of gravitation and in 1916 he presented the general theory of relativity. During this time he also devoted to the problems of the theory of radiation and statistical mechanics.

In the 1920's, Einstein embarked on the construction of unified field theories, although he continued to work on the probabilistic interpretation of quantum theory, and he persevered with this work in America. He contributed to statistical mechanics by his development of the quantum theory of a monatomic gas and he has also accomplished valuable work in connection with atomic transition probabilities and relativistic cosmology.

After his retirement he continued to work towards the unification of the basic concepts of physics, taking the opposite approach, geometrisation, to the majority of physicists.

Einstein's researches are, of course, well chronicled and his more important works include Special Theory of Relativity (1905), Relativity (English translations, 1920 and 1950), General Theory of Relativity (1916), Investigations on Theory of Brownian Movement (1926), and The Evolution of Physics (1938). Among his non-scientific works, About Zionism (1930), Why War? (1933), My Philosophy (1934), and Out of My Later Years (1950) are perhaps the most important.

Albert Einstein received honorary doctorate degrees in science, medicine and philosophy from many European and American universities. During the 1920's he lectured in Europe, America and the Far East and he was awarded Fellowships or Memberships of all the leading scientific academies throughout the world. He gained numerous awards in recognition of his work, including the Copley Medal of the Royal Society of London in 1925, and the Franklin Medal of the Franklin Institute in 1935.

Einstein's gifts inevitably resulted in his dwelling much in intellectual solitude and, for relaxation, music played an important part in his life. He married Mileva Maric in 1903 and they had a daughter and two sons; their marriage was dissolved in 1919 and in the same year he married his cousin, Elsa Löwenthal, who died in 1936. He died on April 18, 1955 at Princeton, New Jersey.

From Nobel Lectures, Physics 1901-1921, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1967

This autobiography/biography was written at the time of the award and first published in the book series Les Prix Nobel. It was later edited and republished in Nobel Lectures. To cite this document, always state the source as shown above.
 * Albert Einstein was formally associated with the Institute for Advanced Study located in Princeton, New Jersey.
* In Time magazine's Einstein was regarded as Person of the Century. [December 1999]
* Einstein had two wives namely: Mileva Maric (6 January 1903 - 14 February 1919) and Elsa Lowenthal (2 June 1919 - 20 December 1936).
*He has long grey hair and moustache.
* He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics, 1921 (for his discovery of the Photoelectric Effect)
* Einsteinium, an element, is named after him.
* After his death, his brain was weighed which was found to be 1.5 kg (2.64 lb). It is now preserved in a glass jar in Wichita, KS.
* He had Asperger Syndrome but wasn't diagnosed until it was discovered by Dr Hans Asperger in the late 1940s.

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